Polyester is one type of polymer that has the ester functional group in its main chain. The term “polyester” as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include natural chemicals as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization in high temperatures. Polyesters as thermoplastics may change shape after the application of heat. While combustible at high temperatures, polyesters tend to shrink away from flames and self-extinguish upon ignition. Polyester fibers have high tenacity and E-modulus as well as low water absorption and minimal shrinkage in comparison with other industrial fibers.
Properties of Polyester Fiber
Polyester is a category of polymer whose monomer contains the ester functional group. The most common polyester for fiber purposes is poly (ethylene terephthalate), or simply PET. This is also the polymer used for many soft drink bottles and it is becoming increasingly common to recycle them after use by remelting the PET and extruding it as fiber. This saves valuable petroleum raw materials, reduces energy consumption, and eliminates solid waste sent to landfills.
PET is made by reacting ethylene glycol with either terephthalic acid or its methyl ester in the presence of an antimony catalyst. The reaction is carried out at high temperature and vacuum to achieve the high molecular weights need to form useful fibers. PET is melt spun.
Today over 70 to 75% of the polyester is produced by CP (continuous polymerization) process using PTA(purified Terephthalic Acid) and MEG. The old process is called the Batch process using DMT (Dimethyl Terephthalate) and MEG( Mono Ethylene Glycol). Catalysts like 5b3O3 (ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE) are used to start and control the reaction.
TiO2 (Titanium dioxide) is added to make the polyester fiber/filament dull. Spin finishes are added at melt spinning and draw machines to provide static protection and have cohesion and certain frictional properties to enable fiber to get processed through textile spinning machinery without any problem.
- Denier: 0.5 – 15
- Tenacity : dry 3.5 – 7.0 : wet 3.5 – 7.0
- %Elongation at break: dry 15 – 45: wet 15 45
- %Moisture Regain: 0.4
- Shrinkage in Boiling Water: 0 – 3
- Crimps per Inch: 12 -14%
- Dry Heat Shrinkage: 5 – 8 (at 180 C for 20 min)
- Specific Gravity: 1.36 – 1.41%
- Elastic Recovery @2% =98 : @5% = 65
- Glass Transition Temp: 80 degree C
- Softening temp: 230 – 240 degree C
- Melting point: 260 – 270 degree C
- Effect of Sunlight: turns yellow, retains 70 – 80% tenacity at long exposure
- Resistance to Weathering: good
- Rot Resistance: high
- Alkali Resistance: damaged by CON alkali
- Acid Resistance: excellent
- Organic Chemical Resistance: good
How to Clean Polyester Upholstery
Polyester fiber is a manufactured texture that can copy the presence of more costly materials, for example, softened cowhide or silk. It’s normally simple to clean, however, recollect that one cleaning technique doesn’t fit all polyester objects. Various textures require distinctive cleaning strategies. As a rule, your circumstance will include polyester furniture upholstery, sleeping pad cushions, pads or covers, or garments.
1 Read the washing instructions on the tag. Most tags on furniture contain codes in the washing instructions. “W” means you should only use water-based solutions. “S” means the fiber can only tolerate solvent-based solutions. “S-W” allows you to use either solvent- or water-based solutions. If you see an “X,” however, you should only vacuum the material.
2. Fill a spray bottle with water or alcohol. If your tag is coded with “S” or “S-W,” you can fill it with rubbing alcohol or vodka. Otherwise, you should only use water. Avoid using soap, which can leave a stain on the fabric.
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